What Are The Different Types Of RAM?


Random Access Memory or RAM is an essential component of a computer’s main memory that stores the data used by the programs running currently. It is like temporary storage that cannot store data once the power is switched off, making it a volatile memory. The information read and written into it is randomly accessed by the CPU for processing. Here is a detailed guide about the types of RAM.  

Types of RAM?

SRAM(Static RAM)

SRAM is a type of RAM that can keep information stored as long as there is a power supply. So, this memory used to build cache memory requires a constant power supply. This is the reason why SRAM is called volatile memory.

DRAM(Dynamic RAM)

The main memory is usually made of DRAM chips. Unlike SRAM, DRAM stores data as electric charges applied to capacitors. The capacitors tend to lose their charge in time, leading to the loss of data. To avoid this, they must be recharged in constant intervals to keep them active.

Types of DRAM

Asynchronous DRAM (ADRAM)

In the ADRAM, the memory device’s timing is controlled asynchronously. A special memory controller circuit controls the timing by generating the required control signals. Here the CPU always considers the delay in the response of the memory. 

Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM)

The access speed of SDRAM is directly synchronized with the CPU’s clock. So the memory chips are ready for operation whenever needed by the CPU. These memories impose no wait states and operate at the CPU-memory bus. Multiple SDRAM chips make up a module by forming the required capacity.

Double-Data-Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM)

While the SDRAM explained above operates on the rising edge of the clock signal, DDR SDRAM operates on both edges and is faster. As the data transfer happens on both edges, the data transfer rate is obviously double compared to SDRAM. The memory cells are made into two groups that can be accessed separately to enable data access at a high rate.

Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)

The RDRAM assures a very high data transfer rate over a narrow CPU-memory bus by using different speed-up mechanisms like caching inside the DRAM chips, synchronous memory interface, and very fast signal timing. The data bus width of RDRAM is 8 or 9 bits.

Cache DRAM (CDRAM)

CDRAM is a special DRAM memory with on-chip cache memory to act as a high-speed buffer for the main DRAM.

Form Factor (DIMM vs. SO-DIMM)

  • DIMM

Dual in-line memory module sticks are larger RAM modules specially designed for desktop motherboards.

  • SO-DIMM

Small outline dual in-line memory modules are smaller modules designed for laptops, some small form factor motherboards, and Intel NUC mini-PCs.

Difference Between RDRAM and SDRAM (RDRAM vs SDRAM)

Certain factors differentiate RDRAM and SDRAM. They include:

  • Overall design concept: The packaging of RDRAM is that of plastic and wafer, which is combined with an advanced circuit design. The SDRAM has a single granular chip that is responsible for all the operations.
  • Clock system: In RDRAM, the channel is supplied with the time slot through the system bus. Each subpart gets it individually. In SDRAM, the task is done bit by bit. The clock system in this memory works by increasing the number of instructions. 
  • Bits and interface: RDRAM has 64 bits in its interface and an external interface. SDRAM has 16-32 bits together with an external interface.
  • Loop mechanism: In RDRAM, a timely connection is established using a Delay Locked Loop, whereas, in SDRAM, Phase Locked Loop is used instead.   

Difference Between DDRAM and SDRAM (DDRAM vs. SDRAM)

SDRAM is Synchronous Dynamic RAM, and DDRAM is Double Data Rate SDRAM. Released in 1997, SDRAM has 168 pins and two notches at the connector, while DDRAM has 184 pins and just one notch at the connector. The main difference between the two is that the speed of DDRAM is almost double that of SDRAM.

Working on 3.3 volts, SDRAM’s speed is 66MHz, 100 MHZ and 133 MHz while DDRAM works on 2.5 volts and works on 200 MHz, 266 MHz, 333 MHz, and 400 MHz. SDRAM has a prefetch timing of 1ns, and it waits for the previous command to be completed to be able to read/write again while there is no waiting in DDRAM.   

What’s the difference between DDR3, DDR4, and DDR5? (DDR3 vs. DDR4 vs. DDR5)

DDR4 is the common RAM used now, while some PCs still use DDR3. There are only a few companies that develop DDR5.

  • Bandwidth: The bandwidth of DDR3, DDR4, and DDR5 are 17GBps, 25.6 GBps, and 32GBps, respectively. Basically, the functional RAM is the faster one.
  • Voltage: DDR3 works on 1.3/1.5V while DDR4 and DDR5 work on 1.2V and 1.1V, respectively. Better performance is guaranteed by the RAM that works on higher voltages.
  • Prefetch: While the prefetch timings of DDR3 and DDR4 is 8n, for DDR5, it can be 8/16n. When the prefetch buffer of RAM is higher, it can read more data in one pass. This is an efficient way of reading data.

SO-DIMM Vs. SDRAM

SODIMM is small outline dual in-line memory module used for laptops and notebook computers that are small in size. Synchronous DRAM is a type of RAM used for desktop computers.

SDRAM vs. DRAM

The main difference between SDRAM and DRAM is that the former is synchronous while the latter is asynchronous. DRAM uses a transistor to store data on a capacitor which has to be charged in regular intervals to retain the data. The data will be lost if the charging does not take place regularly. When the DRAM receives instructions from the user, it is directly sent without waiting to synchronize with the computer’s clock.

The sending of instructions happens more efficiently in SDRAM as it is synchronized with the computer’s clock. The instructions are pipelined, and the CPU can receive the next command before the previous command is done processing. So the operational speed of SDRAM is higher than that of DRAM. 

DRAM vs. RAM

The computer uses RAM to store data temporarily when the CPU is processing commands. If the computer has more RAM, the CPU can store more data in the temporary storage and use it when necessary making the computer run faster. DRAM is a type of RAM and has different sizes that can be chosen according to your requirements. It is used as a computer’s main memory.

RAM is fast, but it cannot store data permanently as it is volatile. Once the power is off, the data will be lost. As DRAM is a type of RAM, the same goes with it too. DRAM has a transistor and a capacitor where the data is stored. When the charge is drained completely from the capacitor, the data will be lost. So, it is necessary to refresh DRAM often. The attractive price and simple design make DRAM more popular than other types of memory.

DIMM vs. DDR4

Dual Inline Memory Module or DIMM is the physical component where the RAM is accommodated. It is in the form of long, thin circuit boards equipped with tabs on one edge that have flat metal pins to enable data transfer between the CPU and RAM. RAM can be seen as the rectangular modules on the surface of the DIMM that is black.

DDR RAM is short for Double Data Rate Random Access Memory. Due to the increased transfer rates and decreased voltage, DDR4 has a higher speed and is very efficient. Interestingly, there is no difference between DIMM and DDR4, as DDR4 is a type of DIMM.

DIMM vs. DDR3   

The RAM is housed in a physical component called Dual Inline Memory Module or DIMM. DIMM is a thin, narrow, long circuit board with flat metal pins that make the data transfer between the computer and RAM. The DIMM has some black-colored rectangular modules on its surface, identified as RAM.

DDR RAM is short for Double Data Rate Random Access Memory. DDR3 was invented in 2007 with a high bandwidth interface. It came after DDR and DDR2 and was succeeded by DDR4. The benefit of DDR3, when compared to DDR2, is that it comes with twice the data transfer rate. Interestingly, there is no difference between DIMM and DDR3, as DDR3 is a type of DIMM.

Related Questions

Which brand of RAM is best?

The best RAM available today is Corsair Vengeance LED. It looks fantastic and is fast and responsive, just the qualities needed for RAM. Its overclocking performance is also noteworthy.

What is the fastest RAM?

The company G.SKILL produces the fastest RAM Trident Z5 DDR5 RAM.

What is the best RAM for gaming?

 The best RAM available for gaming is TEAM XTREEM ARGB 16GB DDR4-3600MHz C14. The RAM is great for AMD Ryzen, has subtle RGB, and comes at a great price.

What is the best RAM for Laptop?

The best DDR4 RAM for laptops is Corsair Vengeance DDR4.

What is the best RAM for a PC?

The best DDR4 RAM for PC is Corsair Vengeance DDR4.

Do laptops use DIMM or SO-DIMM?

Laptops use SO-DIMM.

Are DIMMs better than SODIMMs?

DIMMs are larger RAM modules used in desktop motherboards, while SODIMMs are smaller modules used in notebook computers. There is not much difference between the two other than the module sizes.

Will DDR5 RAM make a difference?

DDR5 RAM comes with a lot of benefits when compared to DDR4. DDR5 will be better in terms of latency, speed, performance, and power management.

Is DDR5 RAM better than DDR4?

DDR5 definitely performs better than DDR4. Though DDR5 is much faster, this comes in handy only in some workloads. It has more future-proofing value but is not recommended for gaming.

Is DDR5 RAM good for gaming?

DDR5 can offer a little performance improvement, but sometimes the improvement is negligible. This actually depends on the game you are playing. The most you can get is a 20% performance boost while playing games.

Can DDR4 fit in DDR5 RAM?

 No, DDR4 cannot fit into the DDR5 slot as the key notch on DDR5 is more to the left than the key notch of DDR4.

Does DDR5 need a new motherboard?

Yes, DDR5 needs a new motherboard as it will not work on your current system.

Will DDR5 work on my motherboard?

No, DDR5 will require a new motherboard to function properly.

What are the 3 types of RAM?

Static RAM (SRAM) Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)

What is RAM and its type?

The full form of RAM is Random Access Memory. Two main types of RAM are 1)Static RAM and 2) Dynamic RAM. Static RAM is the full form of SRAM. In this type of RAM, data is stored using the state of a six transistor memory cell. DRAM stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory.Which RAM type is best?

Best RAM For Gaming You Can Buy Today

  1. G.Skill Trident Z5 RGB DDR5-6000 (2 x 16GB)
  2. TeamGroup T-Force Xtreem ARGB DDR4-3600 (2 x 8GB)
  3. Patriot Viper Steel DDR4-4400 (2 x 8GB)
  4. Patriot Viper RGB DDR4-3600 (2 x 8GB)
  5. Patriot Viper 4 DDR4-3400 (2 x 8GB)
  6. Corsair Vengeance RGB Pro DDR4-3200 (4 x 8GB)

How many types of DDR RAM are there?

There are five types of DDR RAM.

What is DDR3 vs DDR4?

What are the advantages of DDR4 over DDR3? DDR4 modules are more energy-efficient, operating only at 1.2V compared with DDR3’s 1.5V or 1.35V. The reduced power consumption gives substantial power savings and allows operation at higher speeds without higher power and cooling requirements.

What is the latest RAM type?

Crucial DDR5 memory will be available in 8, 16, and 32GB at launch.

DDR5 is the most current. Generally, the processors and motherboards that are manufactured today are only compatible with the RAM of this generation. On the other hand, there are those of the generation DDR4, DDR3 or DDR2.

What type of RAM is used in laptops?

There are two types of RAM used in laptops produced in the last two years and only one offers an upgrade path: DDR4. DDR4 modules, or SO-DIMMS, are sold in varying speeds and sizes. The most common laptop memory speeds today are DDR4/2133 and DDR4/2400.

What is the full form of SDRAM?

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory (synchronous dynamic RAM or SDRAM) is any DRAM where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal.

What are the 4 types of memory?

Most scientists believe there are at least four general types of memory:

  • working memory.
  • sensory memory.
  • short-term memory.
  • long-term memory.

How many types of RAMs are Mcq?

How many types of RAMs are? Explanation: There are two types of RAM and these are static and dynamic.

Can you use different types of RAM?

You cannot mix different generations of DRAM. In fact, you can’t install a different generation of DRAM in your system at all. The reason is that your motherboard is built to process one generation of memory.

What is DDR used for?

In computing, a computer bus operating with double data rate (DDR) transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. This is also known as double pumped, dual-pumped, and double transition. The term toggle mode is used in the context of NAND flash memory.

What RAM type do I need?

The amount of memory on a single RAM stick can vary, with higher capacity sticks being more expensive. Most non-gaming computers have between 2-4GB of RAM, but for high-end gaming you’ll definitely want at least 8GB, and preferably 12-16GB if you’re able.

What is good RAM speed?

In terms of memory speed, you should look for DDR4 memory that operates close to or above 2,400MHz—or 2400MT/s as it’ll appear on the packaging and online. Users purchasing DDR3 RAM should look for memory operating at 1,866MHz at least, and the closer to 2,000MHz the better.

What is the difference between DDR1 and DDR2?

DDR2 stands for Double Data Rate version 2 It is the second version of DDR memory. This version of RAM was developed to achieve a high data rate for block-transferring.Difference between DDR and DDR2 :

S.No.DDRDDR2
1.DDR has a bus clock speed of 100 MHz-200 MHz.While DDR2 has a bus clock speed of 200 MHz-533 MHz.

Is there a DDR1 RAM?

DDR SDRAM, also retroactively called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, DDR4 SDRAM and DDR5 SDRAM.

What is the difference between DDR1 DDR2 and DDR3?

Key Difference: DDR (DDR1), DDR2 and DDR3 are different types of SDRAM that are used in computers. DDR2 provides a faster transfer rate, bus clock and is more power-friendly compared to DDR1. DDR3 is an advanced version of the same technology.

Is 8GB DDR3 RAM good?

Splendid. Highest minimum settings at the moment is 6GB and a 64-bit operating system. If you were building a high-end PC I would recommend 16GB to be future proof, but anything that needs more than 8GB of memory is unlikely to run on this processor and graphics card. 8GB should be fine.

What is the difference between DDR3L and DDR3?

The main difference between DDR3 and DDR3L is in the voltage specification. Voltage specification for DDR3 is 1.5V, but the voltage for DDR3L is less, which is 1.35V. The letter L in DDR3L refers to low voltage standard. As DDR3L is a special type of DDR3 all other specifications except the voltage remains the same.

Can I use DDR3 and DDR4 RAM together?

DDR3 and DDR4 RAM don’t work together

A motherboard and CPU that work with DDR3 RAM don’t work with DDR4 RAM and vice versa. The different connectors ensure no one accidentally installs the wrong type of memory. Also, take note that not all RAM works with all processors, even if it fits into the motherboard.

Which is better DDR4 or LPDDR4X?

The LPDDR4X RAM can hit clock speeds up to 4267 MHz which is impressive considering that it’s operating voltage is a lot lower compared to its predecessor. DDR4 RAM works on 1.2V level whereas LPDDR4 RAM works on 1.1V. The LPDDR4X RAM can work on voltage level as low as 0.6V. This is a significant improvement.

What is the fastest RAM?

G. SKILL now holds the world record for fastest system memory speeds DDR5-8704, snatching it from HyperX for DDR4-7200. Overclocker Hocayu utilized the company’s new Trident Z5 DDR5 RAM and an ASUS ROG Z690 Apex motherboard.

What is the difference between DDR4 and Sdram?

DDR4 SDRAM provides a lower operating voltage (1.2V) and higher transfer rate. The transfer rate of DDR4 is 2133~3200 MT/s. DDR4 adds four new Bank Groups technology. Each bank group has the feature of singlehanded operation.

What’s the best RAM for a laptop?

Most of the best laptops come with 16GB for good reason. Windows 10, for example, consumes around 2GB of RAM before you even open an application. If you are doing a lot of graphic design work or are planning on dabbling in some higher-end gaming, you may want to consider increasing that to 16GB.

Can I use 4GB and 8GB RAM together?

You can use 8GB RAM and 4GB RAM together, but doing so can affect performance. Although you’ll have a total of 12GB RAM, it will be slower than using two memory sticks of the same size. When using 8GB and 4GB RAM together, they should have the same voltage rating.

How do I know if my RAM is ddr2 or DDR3?

Check RAM Type

Open Task Manager and go to the Performance tab. Select memory from the column on the left, and look at the very top right. It will tell you how much RAM you have and what type it is. In the screenshot below, you can see that the system is running DDR3.

What does DDR3 stand for?

Double Data Rate 3 Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DDR3 SDRAM) is a type of synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) with a high bandwidth (“double data rate”) interface, and has been in use since 2007.

What does NVRAM stand for?

NVRAM (non-volatile random-access memory) refers to computer memory that can hold data even when power to the memory chips has been turned off. NVRAM is a subset of the larger category of non-volatile memory (NVM), which includes storage-class memory based on NAND flash.

Which is better SDRAM or DDR RAM?

The main difference between SDRAM and DDR memory is the doubled speed: DDR can transfer data at roughly twice the speed of SDRAM. PC133 SDRAM runs at 133 MHz, while 133 MHz DDR effectively runs at 133 MHz x 2 = 266 Mhz.

What is RAM and ROM?

RAM, which stands for random access memory, and ROM, which stands for read-only memory, are both present in your computer. RAM is volatile memory that temporarily stores the files you are working on. ROM is non-volatile memory that permanently stores instructions for your computer.

What is RAM also called?

RAM (Random Access Memory) is the hardware in a computing device where the operating system (OS), application programs and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device’s processor.

What is the difference between static RAM and dynamic RAM?

What is the difference between static RAM and DRAM? Static RAM is fast and expensive, and dynamic RAM is less expensive and slower. Therefore static RAM is used to create the CPU’s speed-sensitive cache, while dynamic RAM forms the larger system RAM space.

What is a DRAM semiconductor?

Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that is typically used for the data or program code needed by a computer processor to function. DRAM is a common type of random access memory (RAM) that is used in personal computers (PCs), workstations and servers.

Can I use 2 RAMs with different brands?

Can You Mix Different RAM Brands? In short, the answer to this question is: yes. No matter the brand, speed, and size of the RAM, theoretically you can mix and match RAM in your system; though it may prove to be problematic. Also, depending on the setup & workload, you may not even notice a difference in performance.

Can I use 16GB and 4GB RAM together?

Its possible, but there is a fairly large chance it wont work properly. Only RAM sold in kits is guaranteed to work together. You can use a single stick by itself if you have to, it wont run in dual channel so the performance will be a little slower, but its not going to be any better using the 4GB stick alongside it.

Can I use 2x 4GB and 8GB RAM together?

In essence, the computer will be faster than when you had just one 4GB RAM stick, but it won’t be as fast as having two RAM sticks of equal size. So, back to the “Can I use 4GB and 8GB ram together question”, yes you can, but a good school of thought recommends that you use two sticks of equal sizes.

What does DDR4 mean in RAM?

DDR4 SDRAM is an abbreviation for “Double Data Rate Fourth Generation Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory.” The last dynamic RAM update was the DDR3 which came out in 2007 [1], but developers were actually already working on the DDR4 all the way back in 2005.

What does DRAM mean?

DRAM stands for “dynamic random access memory,” and it’s a specific type of RAM (random access memory). All computers have RAM, and DRAM is one kind of RAM we see in modern desktops and laptops.

What is the difference between DDR2 and DDR3?

DDR2 RAM provides four knowledge transfers per cycle, whereas DDR3 will increase the amount to eight. forward a base clock speed of 100Mhz, DDR RAM can offer sixteen hundred MB/s of information measure, DDR2 provides thirty-two hundred MB/s, and DDR3 provides 6400 MB/s. a lot of is usually better.

How do I know if my RAM is DDR3 or DDR4?

How to Check If Your PC has DDR4 or DDR3 RAM on Windows 10

What’s the fastest DDR3 RAM?

G. Skill reclaims world’s fastest DDR3 memory title at 4.4GHz

  • The regular speed of the RAM ‘YoungPro’ used was 3,000MHz.
  • As mentioned above, the RAM used for this world record breaking memory overclock was G.

Does more RAM mean a faster computer?

Generally, the faster the RAM, the faster the processing speed. With faster RAM, you increase the speed at which memory transfers information to other components. Meaning, your fast processor now has an equally fast way of talking to the other components, making your computer much more efficient.

What is RGB RAM?

(Red Green Blue Random Access Memory) Memory modules for a desktop PC that light up strictly for a visual effect. The LED lights may continuously rotate through many colors or be programmed for specific colors. These modules are found in gaming PCs, which have transparent cases to show off their internals.

What are SRAM and DRAM?

SRAM: is a memory chip that is faster and uses less power than DRAM. DRAM: is a memory chip that can hold more data than an SRAM chip, but it requires more power.

What means DDR3L?

DDR3L is a special type of DDR3 RAM where the letter ‘L’ refers to low voltage standard. DDR3L uses just 1.35V, which is 0.15V lower than what is used in DDR3. The advantage of working under a low voltage is that the power consumption is low. The less power consumption means a better battery life can be achieved.

What RAM type do I need?

The amount of memory on a single RAM stick can vary, with higher capacity sticks being more expensive. Most non-gaming computers have between 2-4GB of RAM, but for high-end gaming you’ll definitely want at least 8GB, and preferably 12-16GB if you’re able.

Which is better DDR4 or SDRAM?

The main difference between SDRAM and DDR memory is the doubled speed: DDR can transfer data at roughly twice the speed of SDRAM. PC133 SDRAM runs at 133 MHz, while 133 MHz DDR effectively runs at 133 MHz x 2 = 266 Mhz.

What is the difference between SDRAM and DRAM?

Synchronous random access memory (SDRAM) is the same as DRAM except that regular DRAM is asynchronous. Synchronous random access memory stays synchronized with the computer’s clock which allows greater efficiency in storing and retrieving data compared to asynchronous DRAM.

Which RAM is better SRAM or DRAM?

SRAM, or static RAM, offers better performance than DRAM because DRAM needs to be refreshed periodically when in use, while SRAM does not. However, SRAM is more expensive and less dense than DRAM, so SRAM sizes are orders of magnitude lower than DRAM.

What is ROM?

ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory. It refers to computer memory chips containing permanent or semi-permanent data. Unlike RAM, ROM is non-volatile; even after you turn off your computer, the contents of ROM will remain. Almost every computer comes with a small amount of ROM containing the boot firmware.

What is DDR3 SoDIMM?

DDR3: DDR3 is a single voltage capable memory SoDIMM, which supports 1.5 V operation only. It is NOT compatible with computers using 4th Gen Intel processors, which exclusively support 1.35 V operation for memory.

What does PC3L mean on RAM?

PC3 is standard voltage (1.50V) where PC3L is low voltage (1.35V) – A system which requires PC3L cannot support PC3 RAM. PC3L RAM will work in a PC3 based system as it will run at the standard voltage and will inter-operate with PC3 RAM within the system.

What is the difference between LPDDR3 and DDR3?

The short summary is, LPDDR3 is more expensive but has much lower standby power and a better form factor for mobile devices; while DDR3 and DDR3L are less expensive and consume more power but are more suitable for larger memory arrays found in PCs and servers.

How do I know if my RAM is DDR3 or DDR4?

How to Check If Your PC has DDR4 or DDR3 RAM on Windows 10

Can you use 2 different brands of RAM?

Can You Mix Different RAM Brands? In short, the answer to this question is: yes. No matter the brand, speed, and size of the RAM, theoretically you can mix and match RAM in your system; though it may prove to be problematic. Also, depending on the setup & workload, you may not even notice a difference in performance.

Which type of RAM is best for laptops?

The Best DDR4 RAM for Laptops You Can Buy Today

#Product NameAward
1Corsair Vengeance DDR4Best Value DDR4 RAM for Laptops
2Kingston Hyper X ImpactBest Overclocking DDR4 RAM for Laptops
3Patriot Viper 4 SeriesBest Cooled DDR4 RAM for Laptops
4TimeTec HynixBest Basic DDR4 RAM for Laptops

What is GDDR and DDR?

Introduction: Both DDR and GDDR are memories used for CPU and GPU respectively. DDR is used as system memory with CPU (i.e. Central Processing Unit) in your PC. GDDR memory is used with GPU (i.e. Graphics Processing Unit) to speed up performance of graphics card.

What is the full form of DDR?

Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) is a double data rate (DDR) synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) class of memory integrated circuits used in computers.

What is the full form of SDRAM?

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory (synchronous dynamic RAM or SDRAM) is any DRAM where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal.

Choosing the right RAM determines the overall performance of your system to help you complete all the tasks without much hassle. RAM works best if it is well balanced with other components of your computer. How much RAM you need depends greatly on how you are using your system, is it for gaming or watching movies, or for some other purpose? So, choose RAM wisely so that you don’t regret it later. 

Andy Avery

I really enjoy helping people with their tech problems to make life easier, ​and that’s what I’ve been doing professionally for the past decade.

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